Air pollution is an environmental issue that affects humans, animals and plants. It reduces visibility, blocks sunlight, damages forests and wildlife and can cause acid rain.
It can also have a negative impact on human health by harming respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It can also increase the risk of cancer.
Air pollution is a major public health problem that affects everyone, but is particularly harmful to children and people with chronic illnesses. It can make it harder to breathe and cause breathing problems, triggering asthma attacks or causing wheezing and coughing.
Air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The most harmful air pollutants can penetrate deep into the lungs and affect lung function, increasing symptoms of asthma and COPD.
Particulate matter of different sizes can enter the respiratory tract and cause a range of respiratory problems, including asthma, pneumonia, and emphysema (lung damage). A small amount of fine particulate matter can pass through the blood-brain barrier and can affect brain function.
Children are especially vulnerable to the impact of air pollution because their bodies are still developing and they have a smaller lungs. High levels of air pollution are especially dangerous for children in urban areas. These areas often have more traffic than rural areas and tend to have higher concentrations of pollution from vehicle emissions.
The human body can be contaminated by many different types of air pollution including gases, dust and particulate matter. These can be absorbed through your respiratory tract or the eyes, and enter your bloodstream where they may accumulate and affect the cardiovascular system.
Inhaling pollutants through your lungs is the most common route of exposure to air pollution. Other routes include the ingestion of food, drinking water and soil, and contact with plants and animals.
Although the exact mechanism by which air pollution can cause a cardiovascular disease is not known, studies have linked long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone gas and nitrogen dioxide with premature coronary atherosclerosis.
The World Health Organisation has identified air pollution as a key risk factor for global premature mortality. Despite the existence of air pollution guidelines and most national standards, many people are still exposed to high levels of pollution. This is a critical global issue because it has the potential to dramatically affect the lives of the most vulnerable people, mainly those living in developing countries.
The impact of air pollution on human health can range from short-term effects like upper respiratory infections to long-term effects like heart disease and lung cancer. It can also damage the nerves, brain, kidneys and liver.
Air pollution comes from many different sources, including automobile exhaust, industrial facilities and forest fires. It can also be caused by the release of pollutants from waste products.
Some of these pollutants are known carcinogens, while others may cause only mild changes in the body's normal cells that do not lead to tumor formation.
Moreover, some of the most toxic air pollutants are small particles that can penetrate through the lungs and reach deep into the bloodstream. These small particles are more likely to cause serious illnesses and can even kill people.
Air pollution is a known environmental risk factor for mental health, as it negatively affects physical and emotional wellbeing. It has also been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and personality disorder.
The impact of air pollution on human health is complex and diverse. It has been linked to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and respiratory diseases.
However, a recent study showed that exposure to air pollutants may have a negative impact on mental health. Researchers found that people who were exposed to higher levels of particulate matter – tiny particles in the air – were more likely to develop psychiatric disorders than those who had low exposures.
The relationship between air pollution and mental health is multi-faceted and depends on the type of air pollutant and its concentration. In addition, interacting factors such as gender, socio-economic status and health care services may influence the association between air pollution and mental health.